PERIODIC ELEMENT
Ge (Germanium)

 



Atomic number : 32
Atomic mass : 72.59 g.mol-1
Electronegativity according to Pauling : 1.8
Density : 5.3 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Melting point : 937 °C
Boiling point : 2830 °C
Vanderwaals radius : 0.137 nm
Ionic radius : 0.093 (+2) nm ; 0.054 nm (+4)
Isotopes : 9
Electronic shell : [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Energy of first ionisation : 761.2 kJ.mol-1
Energy of second ionisation : 1537 KJ.mol-1
Energy of third ionisation : 3301.2 KJ.mol-1
Energy of fourth ionisation : 4409.4 KJ.mol-1
Discovered by : Clemens Winkler in 1886
 
Atomic Structure Uses (semiconductors)